Destructive diseases caused by nematodes, fungi, insects, weeds, and other pathogens can be devastating to a crop. Many common soil borne issues can be controlled with fumigation.

  • Fusarium
  • Verticillium Wilt
  • Root Knot Nematode
  • Pythium
  • Common Scab
  • Phytophthora

Leading diseases that need fumigation:

Fungi
The most common soil borne pathogens. While not every fungi will cause plant problems, over 8,000 fungi species do. Most plants are susceptible to some type of fungus.

  • Root rots cause the root system to begin to decay. Symptoms may include wilting, yellowing, stunting, dieback and eventual death. Some common root rot fungi include: Cylindrocladium, Pythium, Phytophthora, and Rhizoctonia.
  • Stem, collar, and crown rots have symptoms similar to root rots, but the rotting starts above the soil line. Common pathogens to watch out for include: Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, and Sclerotium.
  • Wilt diseases, like Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium cause wilting of the plants, despite adequate water.
  • Damping-off diseases affect young seedlings. They can be caused by a handful of fungi, including Pythium, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia and Sclerotium rolfsii.

Bacteria
Examples include Erwinia (soft rot), Rhizomonas (corky root of lettuce), and Streptomyces (potato scab, soft rot of sweet potatoes)

Nematodes
Nematodes are unsegmented worms with round bodies and points at both ends. Some are parasitic and some will feed on or in roots. This is especially problematic for root crops. Root knot nematodes cause distortion and swelling of roots and can affect the plant's vigor. Needle nematodes feed on the tips of roots, causing branching and swelling. And stubby root nematodes cause short, stubby roots.

Insects
Fumigation helps control all life stages (egg, larva, pupa, adult) of destructive pests.